Wednesday, February 20, 2008

Iron Deficiency

by : Melly Latifah
Human resources quality is an important thing for development. The quality of human resources are depend on many factors. One of them is nutrition. We need a good nutrition to make a healthy human.

Nutriton is the essensial part of food. There are six elements of nutrition, namely carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamine, mineral, and water. Iron is one kind of mineral that we need for a good health and performance. Iron deficiency can decrease work performance of adults, also influence brain development of children.

The brain seems to be most sensitive to iron deficiency during the first two years of life, which produces long-term consecuencies. There is increasing evidence that children over two years of age with moderate iron deficiency in developing countries improve their mental function and school achievement if their iron deficiency is corrected by iron supplementation (Garrow & James, 1993). The experiments with young children (Pollit, et al, 1989) strongly support the view that iron supplements in early infancy improve mental performance in developing countries. These finding showing the dependence of brain development and function of iron supply.

Now, we have knew the importance of iron. Therefore, we need an adequate iron in our consumption for our good health. We can get iron from red meat, lever, fish, and green vegetables.

IPB in the Future

by : Melly Latifah
IPB is one of the old university and the only one of the agriculture universtity in Indonesia. Formerly, IPB, as well as ITB, was the part of UI. Around 1960, Faculty of Technology UI was separated from UI and then become ITB. In 1963, Faculty of Agriculture UI was separated from UI and then become IPB.

Since 1963, IPB was a public university with a huge place that was founded by goverment of Indonesia. All lecturer and another employee were paid by government, so almost all operational cost. In IPB, students could studied with chip cost because almost all academic activity were paid by government.

Now, all of the priviliges are still a dream because IPB not as a public university anymore. IPB become a BHMN, an institution which is paid all of its operational costs by itself like private university. Therefore, IPB has to get money by itself.

IPB has did manything to get money. One of them was developing bisnis units like Ekalokasari Plaza and Bogor Agriculture Center. Maybe some day, another place will be took for another bisnis to get more money. It causes academic areas are decreasing litle by litle.

In the future, IPB maybe not a huge, quite and cool place anymore. On the contrary, IPB will become a university with narrow land and crowded place surounded by many business center that full with people with many business activity.

Food Sources

by : Melly Latifah

Food plays an important role in human life. It is needed by everyone for healthy life : doing the activities, supporting the growth, and maintaining the health. The individual food adequation determine individual nutritional status; without adequate food, people can’t maintain their nutritional status. Furthermore, individual nutrition status determine individual healthy life. So, people must eat food adequatly for healthy life.

We can find the food from many sources. The main sources of food are plants and animals, but we can devide it into ten categories, namely : Sereals, tubers, nuts, vegetables, fruits, fishs, meats, eggs, milk and it’s products, fats and oils. Each food has important role in our body.

Sereals - such as rice, corn, wheat, etc. - and tubers - such as cassava, sweet potato, potato, etc. - are important food sources of human energy. The main role of that foods in our body are produce energy, so that we can do many activities, such as walking, running, working, etc.

Nuts, such as peanuts, soybeans, cashew, peas, etc.; fishs, meats; eggs; also milk and it’s products are main food sources of human protein requirement. They produce proteins in our body for supporting our growth and maintaining our health.

Fats and oils are important food sources of human fat requirement. People need fat for producting energy and some kinds of fatty acid that we need for synthesizing protein.

Milk and it’s products - such as butter, cheese, yogurt and ice cream - are important food sources of protein and fat. Milk is a good food for children that they have been in growing period.

Vegetables and fruits are important food sources of human also because they supply our vitamins and minerals requirement. We need vitamins – such as A, B, C, D, E, K, etc. – and minerals – such as Ferrum, Calcium Yodium, Magnesium, etc.- for regulating our body metabolism. For example, without vitamin K, our body cannot produce membrans that we need for blood clotting; without Calcium, our body cannot form bones.

Base on the description above, we have known that we need energy and many kind of nutrition (proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals) for healthy life. We can find energy and nutrition not only from one kind of food, but from various sources, so that, we need various food for healthy life.

The Merit of Inventors

by : Melly Latifah
Life in present days is so differ from the past. Today, we can find almost everything, and we can reach it easier. We need not to go to Italy just to have some spices for Italian food, or fly to some countries in Europe just to taste for their delicious sub-tropical fruits, such as apple, grave, plum, cherry, and peer. We need not bother to go to Arabian Saudy to have some fragrant sweety dates or arabian peanut which is so delicious. We can find all of them here, in Indonesia. Whether we can find it at super market, mini market, or at the traditionally market. Even when we could not find what we need in Indonesia, we can have it right on time by surfing in the web of internet.

Today is so called the instant and ease-age because almost all of day to day activity at home can be done easier. We can wash clothes and dishes quickly by using a washing-machine. We can use a blender to refine some spices, or use a juicer to squeeze fruits. Those who have hobby in making cake can use a mixer to stir dough following by using a microwave oven to roasted which is quicker and easier to handle. If we want hot water in our tub, just turning the water faucet. We just need to turn the TV on if we want to know what happen in abroad, or push the AC remote on when we want our room at home or office more comfortable. That’s all the ease of present age.

For all of the ease of age we couldn’t forget the merit of all the inventors. The inventors of transportation, cooling machine, kitchen tools, and others tools which helping us in day to day activity. Of course, all of the ease did not find just like that. The inventors must passed a long and tired steps to find out that sophisticated tools. During their explorations, the inventors often faced difficulties, even dangers of the perilous nature, like electricity invention by Benjamin Franklin, or mercury invention by Mary Currie.

The inventors didn’t care about all of the risk that might be harmfull for them self. The more difficult it is, the more highly it is regarded. The important thing to the inventors were to attain their solitary goals, namely the answer of their reseach questions --- the summits of their invention.

For that reason, we --- people who live in the world today --- must thank to the inventors --- who live in the past. Without their merit, we can’t experience the age of having everything and doing ease. Whereas in their period, their had bad experiences with uneasie and uncomfort lifes. They had the impoverished settlements and bad transportations, as well the foods were not ease to find and to cook.

The Role of Family on Development of Child Character

by : Melly Latifah
As television shows us about various violence, sexual harrashment and other criminal actions at home and our neighborhood, then we asked a question:” What is wrong with our character? What happens in our home? Why does it happen?” This essay will discuss about definition of character, factors that influence it, and the role of family on character development.

There are some definitions about character. Some said that character is subjective assessment about the quality of moral and mental; while some said that character is subjective assessment of quality of mental only, so the effort to change or build it is only related with stimulate someone’s intelectuality1). Dennis Coon2) said that character is subjective assessment about someone’s personalities related with personalities attributes which can be or cannot be accepted by community.
Character, as other self qualities, does not grow alone. It is influenced by many factors. In general there are two factors that influence character developnment, namely nature and nurture 3).

Nature factor is endowment potent that determines human development by genetic mechanism. Nurture factor is environment factor that determine human development by parenting and education practices. Developmental psychologist believe that every human being has endowment potent that will be applied after the birth, including potent of character. Confusius said that if those potent are not followed by education and socialization, human being will still as thinking animal, even worst 4).

According to Thomas Lichona, as well as Erik Erikson, character education must be conducted at the very beginning of life. Erikson said that child is the early figure of manhood, which is wisdom to grow up slowly but sure.

According to Ratna Megawangi (2003), a child will be grown up as a characterized person in a characterized environment. Therefore, family - as the first environment of a child - hold a main role in development of child’s character. There are three needs to develop good personality, namely : maternal bonding, security, and physically and mentally stimulation.

Maternal bonding, which is the psichologycal closeness with mother, takes an important role in child trust development. Erikson said, the close mother-child bonding emotionally in the very beginning of life results the good personality of a child.

The need for security is the child’s need for stable and secure environment. This is important because the unstable environment will ruin the emotional development of a child.

Physically and mentally stimulation need a great attention from the parents. The great attention from a mother will help a child to be a joyful, an entusiatically explore the environment, and a creative kid.

Furthermore, parenting pattern plays an important role in acquisition of good character by children. Parenting pattern can be defined as a parent-child interaction pattern which includes fullfillness of physical and psychological needs. Baumrind5) categorized these pattern as follows : (1) Authoritarian, (2) Authoritative, (3) permissive. Hurlock and Hardy & Heyes6) called these pattern as (1) otoritarian, (2) democracy, and (3) permissive.

Otoritarian pattern is characterized by : (1) parents domination; (2) unconsidered child as a person; (3) very tight control of child behaviour; (4) punishment for disobey child. Democracy pattern can be identified by: (1) there is a cooperation between parents and child; (2) child is considered as a person; (3) parents give guidance and direction; (4) parents is not-rigid in controlling child. Permissive pattern can be identified by: (1) child dominates parents; (2) parents give freedom to their child; (3) there is no parents guidance and direction; (4) it is very lack of parent control.

It seems that democracy pattern is very condusive pattern for character education of child. According to Arkoff7), democracy pattern produces child that expresses his or her aggresivity in a constructive way; in contrast, it is very different with child who had grown up in autoritarian pattern. Meanwhile, child that had grown up in permissive pattern expresses his or her aggresivity vulgarly.

In conclusion, we can say that character is the quality of someone’s moral and mental. The development of character is influenced by nature and nurture. Each human being potentially has a good character, but this potent must be on-going developed through socialization and education from the very beginning of life. Family is the first and the main environment in education of child’s character. There are three factors that a family should has for generating a good personality, as follows : maternal bonding, secureness (security), physical and mental stimulation. In addition, parenting pattern also plays an important role for the success of character building. The rise of not-characterized community is a result of the failed of character building in family. Therefore, each family must be aware about the important role of character building for the shake of nation building.

1) Accessed on April 26, 2004.
2) Coon, Dennis. (1983). Introduction to Psychology : Exploration and Aplication. West Publishing Co.
3) Megawangi, Ratna. (2003). Pendidikan Karakter untuk Membangun Masyarakat Madani. Indonesia Heritage Foundation.
4) Ibid.
5) Badingah, Siti. (1993). Agresivitas Remaja Kaitannya dengan Pola Asuh, Tingkah Laku Agresif Orang Tua dan Kegemaran Menonoton Film Keras. Program Studi Psikologi – Pascasarjana, UI. Depok
6) Ibid
7) Ibid